Small-Scale Freshwater Toxicity Investigations

Small-Scale Freshwater Toxicity Investigations
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Toxicity Test Methods
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Christian Blaise
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Part 1. Introduction Overview of contemporary toxicity testing ; C. Blaise and J.-F. Férard Part 2. Toxicity Test Methods Bacteria Chapter 1. Microtox acute toxicity test; B.T. Johnson Chapter 2. Solid-phase test for sediment toxicity using the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri; K. Doe, P. Jackman, R. Scroggins, D. McLeay and G. Wohlgeschaffen Micro-algae and aquatic macrophytes Chapter 3. Algal microplate toxicity test; C. Blaise and P. Vasseur Chapter 4. Algal toxicity test; J.P. Staveley and J.C. Smrchek Chapter 5. Microalgal toxicity tests using flow cytometry; J. Stauber, N. Franklin and M. Adams Chapter 6. Algal microplate toxicity test suitable for heavy metals; H.G. Peterson, N. Nyholm and N. Ruecker Chapter 7. Lemma minor growth inhibition test; M. Moody and J. Miller Protozoans Chapter 8. Spirotox test - Spirostomum ambiguum acute toxicity test; G. Nalecz-Jawecki Micro-invertebrates Chapter 9. Rotifer ingestion test for rapid assessment of toxicity; T. Snell Chapter 10. Acute and chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia sp.; E. Jonczyk and G. Gilron Chapter 11. Hydra population reproduction toxicity test method; D. Holdway Chapter 12. Amphipod (Hyalella azteca) solid-phase toxicity test using High Water-Sediment ratios; U. Borgmann, W.P. Norwood and M. Nowierski Chapter 13. Chironomus riparius solid-phase assay; A.R.R. Péry, R. Mons and J. Garric Fish cells Chapter 14. Acute toxicity assessment of liquid samples with primary cultures of rainbowtrout hepatocytes; F. Gagné Chapter 15. Rainbow trout gill cell line microplate cytotoxicity test; V. Dayeh, K. Schirmer, L. Lee and N. Bols Glossary Index
This broad review is the first to gather comprehensive information on the complete contemporary range of toxicity testing procedures and hazard assessment procedures, which is normally scattered and difficult to find. The two-volume set provides a consistent, template-based approach, linking relevant information on background, theory and practice to each bioassay. Volume 1 covers small-scale toxicity test methods. Includes extensive glossary.
Christian Blaise, D.Sc., is a senior research scientist at the Saint-Lawrence Centre, Environment Canada, Québec Region, where he heads the Aquatic Toxicology Unit (ATU), River Ecosystems Research Section. He also holds an adjunct professor status at UQAR (Université du Québec à Rimouski) where he contributes to teaching and (co)directs graduate students in the field of ecotoxicology. ATU strives to develop, validate, standardize, modernize (and promote the commercialization of) bioanalytical and biomarker techniques, making use of new instrumental technologies whenever possible, in order to determine the potential (geno)toxicity of chemicals and various types of environmental matrices (e.g., effluents, sediments, pore/surface waters). ATU research output provides practical tools and approaches which facilitate decision-making for environmental management of aquatic ecosystems such as the Saint-Lawrence River. ATU also provides (inter)national technology transfer to interested professionals and agencies and promotes graduate student training by co-directing applied research projects with university collaborators.
Dr. Blaise obtained university diplomas from the U. of Montréal (B.A., 1967: biology and chemistry), U. of Ottawa (B.Sc., 1970: cell biology; M.Sc., 1973: environmental microbiology) and U. of Metz (D.Sc., 1984: ecotoxicology). He is a member of the editorial board for two scientific journals (Environmental Toxicology; Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety) and holds membership in both the biologists' (Association des Biologistes du Québec) and microbiologists' (Association des Microbiologistes du Québec) associations of the province of Québec. He regularly attends and makes presentations during major venues held in the field of ecotoxicology (SETAC: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; SECOTOX: Society of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety; ATW-Canada: Aquatic Toxicity Workshop-Canada; ISTA: International Symposium on Toxicity Assessment). Dr. Blaise has (co)authored over 100 scientific articles in internationally refereed journals, as well as having written several book chapters, reviews, and various government technical reports.

He recently co-edited, with Canadian colleagues, a book dedicated to small-scale toxicity testing (Wells, P., K. Lee and C. Blaise (eds.), 1998. Microscale testing in Aquatic Toxicology Advances, Techniques and Practice. CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, 679 pages). He was scientific organizer of the 10th International Symposium on Toxicity Assessment (ISTA 10), hosted by the Saint-Lawrence Centre where he works, and held in Quebec City, August 26-31, 2001. He further co-edited with another Canadian colleague, a special edition of Environ. Toxicol. (Volume 17 [3]: 2002, special issue) highlighting selected papers presented at the ISTA 10 venue.
Jean-François Férard, D.Sc., is a professor at the University of Metz (Lorraine province of France), where he heads a research team (RT) which is part of a C.N.R.S. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) research unit for Ecotoxicity and Environmental Health (E.S.E). He also manages an undergraduate school program dedicated to Environmental Engineering. His teaching duties involve fundamental and applied Ecotoxicology, Physiology and Physiotoxicology, Cell Biology and other related disciplines.

In the field of ecotoxicology, his RT was involved in the behavior of metals, PAHs and complex mixtures in air, water and soil compartments and their effects on different organisms (bacteria, algae, crustaceans, plants, arthropods, etc.). His actual research endeavors are more specifically focused on the development of metal-resistance (e.g. phytochelatin) and genotoxic (e.g. comet assay) biomarkers. He also promotes knowledge and use of toxicity tests by organizing an annual course entitled "Ecotoxicity and carcinogenicity of chemicals" which provides a theoretical and practical view of numerous toxicity tests to decision-makers, industrialists and consultants. Since 1974, he has markedly contributed to numerous research programs that have successfully lead to i) development and validation of different ecotoxicity tools (e.g. new toxicity test methods, trophic chain models, biomarkers), ii) hazard/risk assessment schemes and iii) links between field and laboratory studies. These undertakings were financially supported by the European Economic Community, the French ministry of the Environment, and agencies such as the French Water Agency of the Rhin-Meuse Watershed, the French Agency for Environment and Energy Ressources.

Professor Férard obtained university diplomas from the U. of Strasbourg (B.A., 1970: biology and chemistry; B.Sc., 1973: biochemistry) and U. of Metz (M.Sc., 1974: chemistry and environmental toxicology; D.Sc., 1978: environmental toxicology; State doctorate, 1986: environmental toxicology). He was European editor for Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality from 1992-1996 and holds membership in SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry). He regularly makes presentations during major symposia held in the field of ecotoxicology (e.g. SETAC meetings, Secotox conferences, International Symposia on Toxicity Assessment, Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshops in Canada). Professor Férard has (co)authored over 50 scientific articles in (inter)nationally refereed journals, as well as having written several book chapters, reviews, and research reports. He also participates in several OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and AFNOR (Association française de normalisation - French standards association) initiatives to standardize and promote the use of biological tests.

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